Dürer never saw the actual rhinoceros, which was the first living example seen in Europe since Roman times. Albuquerque decided to forward the gift, known by its Gujarati name of genda, and its Indian keeper, named Ocem, to King Manuel I of Portugal. Cole, F.J. (Francis Joseph), "The History of Albrecht Durer's Rhinoceros in Zoological Literature," essay in Underwood, E. Ashworth (ed. Albrecht Dürer's Rhinoceros Can you make a visual representation of something you've never actually seen? Only one impression (example) of Burgkmair's image has survived, whereas Dürer's print survives in many impressions. Dürer’s Rhinoceros is a woodcut created by Albrecht Dürer in 1515 A.D. As an illustration of an animal at the center of a famous series of events, the woodcut was highly popular in the artist’s lifetime. Google Arts & Culture features content from over 2000 leading museums and archives who have partnered with the Google Cultural Institute to bring the world's treasures online. Dürer produced a first edition of his woodcut in 1515, in the first state, which is distinguished by only five lines of text in the heading. It has a strong pointed horn on the tip of its nose, which it sharpens on stones. , Although very popular, few prints have survived and impressions of the first edition are very rare. This is an accurate representation. Work location: Deutsch: Nürnberg, Augsburg, Venedig, Niederlande. The excitement of Europeâs expanding horizons and ambitions as well as its increasing knowledge and understanding of the wider world and of nature. Rhinoceros. Although the letterpress text atop this broadsheet suggests otherwise, he in fact copied the woodcut from a drawing and a description given by an eyewitness before the ship carrying this gift for the king of Portugal sank on the way from India. Rhinocéros dessiné par Albrecht Dürer en 1515. , Despite its errors, the image remained very popular, and was taken to be an accurate representation of a rhinoceros until the late 18th century. 473x327 (35929 octets) ( fr:Rhinocéros Rhinocéros dessiné par fr:Albrecht_Dürer Albrecht Dürer en fr:1515 1515. The original document in German has not survived, but a transcript in Italian is held in the Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale in Florence. Provenance. The previous year, the Pope had been very pleased with Manuel's gift of a white elephant, also from India, which the Pope had named Hanno. He places a small twisted horn on its back and gives it scaly legs and saw-like rear quarters. He also assures the viewer that “This is an accurate representation”. The Portuguese vessel stopped briefly at an island off Marseilles, where the rhinoceros disembarked to be beheld by the King on 24 January. Dürer n’a jamais observé ce rhinocéros qui était le premier individu vivant vu en Europe depuis l’époque romaine. In particular, Oudry's painting was the inspiration for a plate in Buffon's encyclopedic Histoire naturelle, which was widely copied. 241; S.M.S. He places a small twisted horn on its back and gives it scaly legs and saw-like rear quarters. The Rhinoceros, which must have seemed like a mythical beast to those that viewed it first in Lisbon, would have been a potent symbol of that exotic, untamed, outside world to which Europe was bringing order and enlightenment. (He never personally saw one.) His form is here represented. Original upload log (suppr) (actu) 17 juin 2005 à 22:56 . He made his own drawing of the animal and soon produced the woodcut that proved to be one of the most commercially successful of its time. The image is based on a written description and brief sketch by an unknown artist of an Indian rhinoceros that had arrived in Lisbon in 1515. Deutsch: Nürnberg.  His image is truer to life, omitting Dürer's more fanciful additions and including the shackles and chain used to restrain the rhinoceros; however, Dürer's woodcut is more powerful and eclipsed Burgkmair's in popularity. This may be Dürer's attempt to reflect the rough and almost hairless hide of the Indian rhinoceros, which has wart-like bumps covering its upper legs and shoulders. Dürer never saw the animal himself, but the woodcut he prepared became so famous that for two centuries it was the only rhinoceros Europeans ever saw. The thick folded skin of the Indian rhinoceros has been portrayed as something more like armour plating.  In late 1515, the King of Portugal, Manuel I, sent the animal as a gift for Pope Leo X, but it died in a shipwreck off the coast of Italy in early 1516. The King was keen to curry favour with the Pope, to maintain the papal grants of exclusive possession to the new lands that his naval forces had been exploring in the Far East since Vasco da Gama discovered the sea route to India around Africa in 1498. King Francis I of France was returning from Saint-Maximin-la-Sainte-Baume in Provence, and requested a viewing of the beast. 241; S.M.S. , The block passed into the hands of the Amsterdam printer and cartographer Willem Janssen (also called Willem Blaeu amongst other names).  Dürer – who was acquainted with the Portuguese community of the factory at Antwerp – saw the second letter and sketch in Nuremberg. After resuming its journey, the ship was wrecked in a sudden storm as it passed through the narrows of Porto Venere, north of La Spezia on the coast of Liguria. Martin Lorenz and Joan Pastor: VLNL TpDuro (2019). Melvyn Bragg and guests discuss the great German artist Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528) who achieved fame throughout Europe for the power of his images. The animal had been shipped to Lisbon in 1515 as a gift to King Manuel I of Portugal by Afonso de Albequerque the governor of Portuguese India. It is the size of an elephant but has shorter legs and is almost invulnerable. It sailed on the Nossa Senhora da Ajuda, which left Goa in January 1515.  The resulting chiaroscuro woodcut, which entirely omitted the text, was published after 1620. It is a world in which the nations of Europe were competing not just in Europe itself but across the globe in Asia as well as the Americas. Gilles Le Corre: 1525 Durer Initials (2010). Burgkmair corresponded with merchants in Lisbon and Nuremberg, but it is not clear whether he had access to a letter or sketch as Dürer did, perhaps even Dürer's sources, or saw the animal himself in Portugal. 1. Even so, Bruce's own illustration of the African white rhinoceros, which is noticeably different in appearance to the Indian rhinoceros, still shares conspicuous inaccuracies with Dürer's work. Accession Number: 19.73.159. , Dürer's woodcut is not an entirely accurate representation of a rhinoceros. 23.8 cm 29.9 cm. A duel between a rhinocerus and an elephant? See Clarke, p.19, for a photograph of a gargoyle.  The only known copy of the original published poem is held by the Institución Colombina in Seville. Le Rhinocéros de Dürer est une gravure sur bois d’Albrecht Dürer datée de 1515.L’image est fondée sur une description écrite et un bref croquis par un artiste inconnu d’un rhinocéros indien (Rhinoceros unicornis) débarqué à Lisbonne plus tôt dans l’année. It is thought to have sold as many as 5,000 copies in Durerâs lifetime and was to become the iconic image that Europeans turned to describe the rhinoceros until well into the eighteenth century. Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528), « Le Rhinocerus de Lisbonne », 1515, xylographie sur papier, 21,4×29,8. Find more prominent pieces of animal painting at Wikiart.org – best visual art database. Dimensions: image: 8 3/8 x 11 5/8 in. In any event, there was not the popular sensation in Rome that the living beast had caused in Lisbon, although a rhinoceros was depicted in contemporary paintings in Rome by Giovanni da Udine and Raphael.  It is possible that a suit of armour was forged for the rhinoceros's fight against the elephant in Portugal, and that these features depicted by Dürer are parts of the armour. History. His decision to issue the image as a woodcut made it accessible to many more people eager to experience something of that excitement. The rhinoceros’ horn is much larger and imposing than in nature and, indeed, Durer shows the animal as having a second, smaller, spiral horn on its back. Dürer hatte das Nashorn selbst nie gesehen.  A sculpture of a rhinoceros based on Dürer's image was placed at the base of a 70-foot (21 m) high obelisk designed by Jean Goujon and erected in front of the Church of the Sepulchre in the rue Saint-Denis in Paris in 1549 for the royal entry welcoming the arrival of the new King of France, Henry II. 1) 299 (Kurth's Complete Woodcuts of Albrecht Dürer) Albuquerque passed the gift on to Dom Manuel I, the king of Portugal. .  The vessel passed near Marseille in early 1516. It was housed in King Manuel's menagerie at the Ribeira Palace in Lisbon, separate from his elephants and other large beasts at the Estaus Palace.  Janssen decided to re-issue the block with the addition of a new tone block printed in a variety of colours, olive-green and dark green, as well as blue-grey. Eventually, it was supplanted by more realistic drawings and paintings, particularly those of Clara the rhinoceros, who toured Europe in the 1740s and 1750s. The tower was later decorated with gargoyles shaped as rhinoceros heads under its corbels. The earliest known image of the animal illustrates a poemetto by Florentine Giovanni Giacomo Penni, published in Rome on 13 July 1515, fewer than eight weeks after its arrival in Lisbon. Albrecht Dürer Rhinoceros. 136; M., Holl. British Museum London, United Kingdom. © www.AlbrechtDurer.org 2019. (21.3 x 29.5 cm) trimmed to block line except at top sheet: 9 3/8 x 11 3/4 in. , The pre-eminent position of Dürer's image and its derivatives declined from the mid-to-late-18th century when more live rhinoceroses were transported to Europe, shown to the curious public, and depicted in more accurate representations. His skill can be seen in the delicate shading and the intricate patterning of the animalâs hide. This image of a gift from a colonial governor to his king reflects a confidently expansionist Europe intent on bringing what it saw as its own superior civilisation to a world outside Europe that it thought savage and ignorant. , Some sources erroneously say 1513, copying a typographical error made by Dürer in one of his original drawings and perpetuated in his woodcut. The mission returned without an agreement, but diplomatic gifts were exchanged, including the rhinoceros. Hear about the contest held by Manuel I of Portugal. Both of these paintings were more accurate than Dürer's woodcut, and a more realistic conception of the rhinoceros gradually started to displace Dürer's image in the public imagination. On 20 May 1515, an Indian rhinoceros arrived in Lisbon from the Far East. , Valentim Fernandes, a Moravian merchant and printer, saw the rhinoceros in Lisbon shortly after it arrived and described it in a newsletter sent to the Nuremberg community of merchants in June 1515. Brought from India to the great and powerful King Emanuel of Portugal at Lisbon a live animal called a rhinoceros. If a stuffed rhinoceros did arrive in Rome, its fate remains unknown: it might have been removed to Florence by the Medici or destroyed in the 1527 sack of Rome. Whereas, in the past, the study of zoology had been guided by classical authorities, there was a growing sense that firsthand observation was also of vital importance.  A rhinoceros had not been seen in Europe since Roman times: it had become something of a mythical beast, occasionally conflated in bestiaries with the "monoceros" (unicorn), so the arrival of a living example created a sensation. To the modern eye it does not appear to be a very realistic depiction of a rhinoceros. Dürer's "Rhinoceros" was part of the exhibition "Prints and the Pursuit of Knowledge in Early Modern Europe," which was on view September 6–December 10, 2011 at the Arthur M. Sackler Museum.  Semiotician Umberto Eco argues (fetching the idea from E.H. Gombrich, Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation, 1961) that Dürer's "scales and imbricated plates" became a necessary element of depicting the animal, even to those who might know better, because "they knew that only these conventionalized graphic signs could denote «rhinoceros» to the person interpreting the iconic sign." A blackletter.  There is an example in the British Museum.  Many further printings followed after Dürer's death in 1528, including two in the 1540s, and two more in the late 16th century. The rhinoceros had been given as a gift by the ruler of Cambaia to Afonso de Albuquerque, the Portuguese … The rhinoceros, chained and shackled to the deck to keep it under control, was unable to swim to safety and drowned. The Rhinoceros. None of these features is present in a real rhinoceros, although the Indian rhinoceros does have deep folds in its skin that can look like armor from a distance. See also a French translation in the doctoral thesis of Bruno Faidutti at l', Group of History and Theory of Science – Dürer's Rhinoceros, História do famoso rhinocerus de Albrecht Dürer, "Albrecht Dürer's Rhinoceros, a drawing and woodcut", The Durer Rhinoceros - Masterpieces of the British Museum, File:Durer's Rhinoceros on Cathedral Door, Pisa C17th.jpg, "Albrecht Dürer: Masterpieces from a Private Collection", Joachim and Anne Meeting at the Golden Gate, Portrait of the Artist's Mother at the Age of 63, Colossal quartzite statue of Amenhotep III, Amun in the form of a ram protecting King Taharqa, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dürer%27s_Rhinoceros&oldid=996864863, Prints and drawings in the British Museum, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Portuguese-language sources (pt), Wikipedia articles with WorldCat-VIAF identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. Durerâs text at the top of the woodcut confirms the impression that the image gives of a powerful fighting beast feared even by elephants. 3 vols I …  The rhinoceros advanced slowly and deliberately towards its foe; the elephant, unaccustomed to the noisy crowd that turned out to witness the spectacle, fled the field in panic before a single blow was struck.. (Bedini, p.121.). This famous sketch of a rhinoceros was created in 1515 by the influential German artist, Albrecht Dürer, reflecting the growing interest in foreign curiosities that had emerged in tangent with the overseas voyages of exploration, commerce and conquest by the Spanish and Portuguese.